- Professional negotiators are used by both parties.
A term for management and one for labor.
- Formal process used with caucuses and proposal/counter proposal format.
- Large number of issues (over 5) with little or no perspective.
- Conflicts and disagreements are approached from an adult/child perspective.
- Negotiations regarded as necessary evil.
- Everything approached as win/lose situations.
- Process is tedious, lasts month/years with a lot of posturing.
- Often includes mediation and fact-finding, etc.
- Two different reports from two different bargaining groups