- Professional negotiators are used by both parties.
A term for management and one for labor.
- Formal process used with caucuses and proposal/counter proposal format.
- Large number of issues (over 5) with little or no perspective.
- Conflicts and disagreements are approached from an adult/child perspective.
- Negotiations regarded as necessary evil.
- Everything approached as win/lose situations.
- Process is tedious, lasts month/years with a lot of posturing.
- Often includes mediation and fact-finding, etc.
- Two different reports from two different bargaining groups
Adversarial relations lead to:
- Loud/visible posturing between groups
- Name calling.
- Energy spent on justifying differences.
- Public relations problems from upset organizations, students, parents and community.
- Residual bad feelings left after settlement.
- Management and Association work as one team with professional negotiators as consultants to be used if needed.
- Single group with informal process used with joint brainstorming and problem-solving caucuses.
- Generally small number of issues (3-6) working from highest priority.
- Concepts and problems discussed without initial written proposals.
- Conflicts which arise are seen as opportunities for group understanding and problem-solving from an adult/adult perspective.
- Negotiations approached as an on-going opportunity to improve long-term relationships. Everything approached as win/win solutions.
- Once common report from the collaborative bargaining team.
- Process can take many days over many months with working through to consensus.
Cooperative relations lead to:
- Recognition and focus on common goals
- Sense of “team” among participants
- Feelings of goodwill and appreciation among bargaining unit members
- Mutual sense of accomplishment
- Adapted from William Segura and Jerry Stiner (1987)
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